After close to two decades of research and development, superconducting circuits have emerged as a rich platform for both quantum computation and quantum simulation. Lattices of superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators have been shown to produce artificial materials for microwave photons, where weak interactions can be introduced either via non-linear resonator materials or strong interactions via qubit-resonator coupling. Here, we highlight the previously-overlooked property that these lattice sites are deformable and allow the realization of tight-binding lattices which are unattainable, even in conventional solid-state systems. In particular, we show that networks of CPW resonators can create a new class of materials which constitute regular lattices in an effective hyperbolic space with constant negative curvature. We present numerical simulations of a series of hyperbolic analogs of the kagome lattice which show unusual densities of states with a spectrally-isolated degenerate flat band. We also present a proof-of-principle experimental realization of one of these lattices. This paper represents the first step towards on-chip quantum simulation of materials science and interacting particles in curved space.
The origin of many quantum-material phenomena is intimately related to the presence of flat electronic bands. In quantum simulation, such bands have been realized through line-graph lattices, a class of lattices known to exhibit flat bands. Based on that work, we conduct a high-throughput screening for line-graph lattices among the crystalline structures of the Materials Flatband Database and report on new candidates for line-graph materials and lattice models. In particular, we find materials with line-graph-lattice structures beyond the two most commonly known examples, the kagomé and pyrochlore lattices. We also identify materials which may exhibit flat topological bands. Finally, we examine the various line-graph lattices detected and highlight those with gapped flat bands and those most frequently represented among this set of materials. With the identification of real stoichiometric materials and theoretical lattice geometries, the results of this work may inform future studies of flat-band many-body physics in both condensed matter experiment and theory.
The geometric properties of a lattice can have profound consequences on its band spectrum. For example, symmetry constraints and geometric frustration can give rise to topologicially nontrivial and dispersionless bands, respectively. Line-graph lattices are a perfect example of both of these features: Their lowest energy bands are perfectly flat, and here we develop a formalism to connect some of their geometric properties with the presence or absence of fragile topology in their flat bands. This theoretical work will enable experimental studies of fragile topology in several types of line-graph lattices, most naturally suited to superconducting circuits.